Tumor Markers

[Also see Serology ]
Alkaline phosphatase Metastases to bone, liver, Paget disease of bone, seminoma (placental ALP).
α-fetoprotein Normally made by fetus. Hepatocellular carcinoma, hepatoblastoma, yolk sac (endodermal sinus) tumor, testicular cancer, mixed germ cell tumor (co-secreted with β-hCG).
β-hCG Hydatidiform moles and Choriocarcinomas (Gestational trophoblastic disease), testicular cancer.
Commonly associated with pregnancy
CA-15-3/CA-27-29 Breast cancer.
CA-19-9 Pancreatic adenocarcinoma.
CA-125 Ovarian cancer
Calcitonin Medullary thyroid carcinoma.
CEA CarcinoEmbryonic Antigen. Very nonspecific but produced by ~ 70% of colorectal and pancreatic cancers; also produced by gastric, breast, and medullary thyroid carcinomas
PSA Prostate-specific antigen. Used to follow prostate adenocarcinoma. Can also be elevated in BPH and prostatitis. Questionable risk/benefit for screening.
S-100 Neural crest origin (e.g., melanomas, neural tumors, schwannomas, Langerhans cell histiocytosis).
TRAP Tartrate-Resistant Acid Phosphatase (TRAP).
Hairy cell leukemia—a B-cell neoplasm.
Largely replaced by cylology