|Alkaline phosphatase||Metastases to bone, liver, Paget disease of bone, seminoma (placental ALP).|
|α-fetoprotein||Normally made by fetus. Hepatocellular carcinoma, hepatoblastoma, yolk sac (endodermal sinus) tumor, testicular cancer, mixed germ cell tumor (co-secreted with β-hCG).|
Hydatidiform moles and Choriocarcinomas (Gestational
trophoblastic disease), testicular cancer.
Commonly associated with pregnancy
|Calcitonin||Medullary thyroid carcinoma.|
|CEA||CarcinoEmbryonic Antigen. Very nonspecific but produced by ~ 70% of colorectal and pancreatic cancers; also produced by gastric, breast, and medullary thyroid carcinomas|
|PSA||Prostate-specific antigen. Used to follow prostate adenocarcinoma. Can also be elevated in BPH and prostatitis. Questionable risk/benefit for screening.|
|S-100||Neural crest origin (e.g., melanomas, neural tumors, schwannomas, Langerhans cell histiocytosis).|
Tartrate-Resistant Acid Phosphatase (TRAP).
Hairy cell leukemia—a B-cell neoplasm.
Largely replaced by cylology