Metatarsus Adductus
  • Most common congenital foot deformity
  • Flexible type improves at 4-6 mo
  • Rigid type may require serial casting at 6-9 mo
  • 85-90% resolve by one year of age

Internal tibial torsion
  • Most common cause of intoeing
  • Walks with patella facing forward and feet intoeing
  • 90% resolve by age 8
  • PT, orthotics, splints are not effective


Femoral anteversion
  • Both knees and feet point inward (patella and the toes point inwards)
  • Tendency to sit in a “W” position
  • Most noticeable at age 4-6 yrs
  • 80% improve by age 9-10 yrs
  • Surgery at age 9-10 if more severe