GI Bleed

[Also see Adult GI Bleed ]

Upper GI Bleeding
<2 Mo 2 Mo–2 Y >2 Y
Swallowed maternal blood
Stress ulcer
Vascular malformation
Hemorrhagic disease of newborn (vitamin K deficiency)
Coagulopathy/bleeding diathesis
Gastroenteritis
Toxic ingestion
Mallory-Weiss tear
Vascular malformation
Esophagitis
Stress ulcer
Bleeding diathesis
GI duplication
Foreign body
Gastroenteritis  
Mallory-Weiss tear
Peptic ulcer disease
Toxic ingestion
Vascular malformation
Gastritis
Varices
Hematobilia
Foreign body
Lower GI Bleedingg 
<2 Mo  2 Mo–2 Y  >2 Y 
Swallowed maternal blood
Milk allergy
Infectious colitis
Intussusception
Malrotation/Volvulus
Meckel diverticulum
Necrotizing_Enterocolitis
Vascular malformation
Hemorrhagic disease of newborn
Hirschsprung Disease
Congenital duplications
Anal fissure
Gastroenteritis
Milk allergy
Intussusception
Malrotation/Volvulus
 
Meckel diverticulum
Hemolytic uremic syndrome
Henoch-Schönlein purpura
Polyps; benign, familial
Inflammatory bowel disease
GI duplication
Dieulafoy lesion
Anal fissure
Gastroenteritis  
Hemorrhoids
Polyps
Colitis (infectious, ischemic
Meckel diverticulum
Intussusception
Hemolytic uremic syndrome
Henoch-Schönlein purpura
Inflammatory bowel disease
Angiodysplasia
Celiac disease
Dieulafoy lesion
Rectal ulcer syndrome
Peptic ulcer disease

Causes of GI Bleeding by Type

Hematemesis (vomiting blood)
Infant Swallowed blood
Vitamin K deficiency
Vascular malformation
Child/adolescent Swallowed blood from epistaxis, dental work, Mallory-Weiss tear, gastritis
Peptic ulcer disease, varices
Vascular malformation
Toxic ingestion
Foreign body
Hemophilia
Hematochezia (fresh blood through the anus) and Melena (black, "tarry" feces )
Infant Upper GI sources
Intussusception / Volvulus
Ischemic bowel
Meckel diverticulum
Infectious colitis
beta-Hemolytic Streptococcus 
Anal fissure
Child/adolescent Upper GI sources
Inflammatory colitis, polyps
Infectious colitis
Meckel diverticulum
Ischemic bowel
Intussusception / Volvulus
Henoch-Schönlein purpura
Hemolytic uremic syndrome
Vascular malformation
Hemorrhoid
Anal fissure
Celiac disease

DDx for GI Bleeding

Symptom Complexes and Differential Diagnosis for GI Bleeding
Symptom Complex Differential Diagnosis
Painless hematemesis Swallowed blood (non-GI source)
Coagulopathy
Hematemesis and abdominal, epigastric, or chest pain Peptic ulcer disease
Helicobacter pylori 
Gastritis
Hematemesis, hematochezia, or me-lena with underlying systemic disease Variceal bleeding
Inflammatory bowel disease
Vomiting, hematochezia, or melena with abdominal pain Intussusception
Volvulus
Incarcerated hernia
Mesenteric thrombosis
Henoch-Schönlein purpura
Necrotizing_Enterocolitis
Vomiting, hematochezia, or melena with fever Infectious enterocolitis
Inflammatory bowel disease
Painless rectal bleeding Polyp
Congenital duplication
Meckel diverticulum
Vascular malformation