- High blood pressure
- Sleep disturbance
- Memory problems
- Weight gain, impotence, headaches.
- May lead to daytime sleepiness, job impairment, and motor
- Epworth Sleepiness Scale, 0-3 for each factor
- Sitting, in a car, watching TV, etc.
– 0-10: Normal
– 10-12: Borderline
– 13-24: Abnormal
- Sleep study, whole night or a “split-night” study.
- If obstructive sleep apnea is found, the patient is
awakened and fitted with a PAP device and re-tested.
- The apnea-hypopnea index, or AHI.
- An apnea is not breathing for > 10 seconds.
- Hypopnea is a constricted breath that lasts > 10
- The AHI is the number of apneas and hypopneas per hour.
- An AHI Score
- 5 to 15 is mild;
- 15 to 30 is moderate OSA;
- > 30 is severe
- Weight loss (a factor in 70% of cases)
- Nasal decongestant
- Positional therapy (tennis ball behind the head)
- Surgery—multiple options, individual;
uvulopalatopharyngoplasty, or UPPP
- Sleeping appliance
- Positive airway pressure device
- CPAP or BiPAP
- PAP is the most effective treatment, per AHRQ 2011 national
- Reduces AHI
- Reduces blood pressure
- Improved daytime alertness