Lead Toxicity


Background

  1. Children, typically toddlers, commonly develop lead toxicity from ingestion of lead based paints (banned in the 1970s) still present in millions of homes in the US
  2. For adults lead exposure is a common inhalational exposure in the workplace during the manufacture of batteries and stained glass as well as lead smelting and repair of radiators

Pathophysiology

  1. Primarily affects the kidneys, nervous system and the hematopoietic system by binding to sulfhydryl groups and interfering with enzymatic reactions
  2. Combines with sulfhydryl groups on proteins: inhibits enzymes (heme synthesis)
  3. Kinetics
  4. Etiology/Risk factors for toxicity
  5. Epidemiology

Diagnostics

  1. History/Symptoms
  2. Physical Exam/Signs
  3. Labs/Tests
  4. Imaging
  5. Other Tests
  6. Differential Diagnosis

Treatment

  1. Intitial/Prep
  2. Medical/Pharmaceutical (Antidotes)
  3. Surgical/Procedural
  4. Prevention

Disposition

  1. Admit
  2. Follow up