Pneumomediastinum


Background
  1. Air in mediastinal space

Pathophysiology

  1. Air enters from
  2. Mechanisms
  3. Can result in pneumopericardium or tension pneumopericardium

Diagnostics

  1. History / symptoms
  2. Physical exam
  3. Diagnostic imaging

Differential Diagnosis

  1. Esophageal perforation
  2. Rib fractures
  3. Subcutaneous emphysema
  4. Tension pneumothorax
  5. Pneumothorax
  6. ARDS

Treatment

  1. ATLS as usual
  2. Specific management

Disposition

  1. Usually require admission